REAL-TIME PCR COMPONENTS

DNA polymerasePCR performance is often related to the thermostable DNA polymerase, so enzyme selection is critical to success. One of the main factors affecting PCR specificity is the fact that Taq DNA polymerase has residual activity at low temperatures. Primers can anneal nonspecifically to DNA during reaction setup, allowing the polymerase to synthesize nonspecific product. […]

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STEPS INVOLVED IN PERFORMING REAL-TIME PCR

Real-time PCR is a variation of the standard PCR technique that is commonly used to quantify DNA or RNA in a sample. Using sequence-specific primers, the number of copies of a particular DNA or RNA sequence can be determined. By measuring the amount of amplified product at each stage during the PCR cycle, quantification is

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INTRODUCTION TO REAL TIME POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (RT PCR)

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one of the most powerful technologies in molecular biology. Using PCR, specific sequences within a DNA or complementary DNA (cDNA) template can be copied, or “amplified”, many thousand- to a million-fold using sequence-specific oligonucleotides (or primers), heat-stable DNA polymerase, and thermal cycling. In traditional (endpoint) PCR, detection and quantification

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OTHER INSTRUMENTS FOUND IN THE MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY

Bijou bottles are used for transporting and storing microbial cultures in the microbiology laboratory. They are basically cylindrical small glass bottles fitted with a screw cap, and bijou bottles are generally used as a culture medium container for microorganisms (inclusive of bacteria and fungi). Test tube racks are commonly used in the microbiology laboratories to

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Practical Tips for Resolving Conflict as a Scientist, Research Leader, Scholar

Conflict Resolution: Practical Tips for STEM Leaders These tips presented here was adapted from the website: www.hellobio.com In the fast-paced world of science research, a busy lab can sometimes be a stressful place to work, and on occasion these stresses can lead to conflict among colleagues. Limited resources, difficult time constraints and the pressure to produce

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Clinical and pharmacological significance of synergism, antagonism and additive effects of drugs or pharmacological compounds

The terms synergistic effect (synergism), antagonistic effect (antagonism) and additive effect are all clinical and pharmacological phrases that have clinical applications in drug administration in real life. They are also applied in research particularly in novel drug discovery, drug testing and therapeutic drug applications. Chemical reactions in chemistry happen when two compounds or more react

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HOW TO DESIGN PRIMERS FOR YOUR PCR EXPERIMENT

Primers are short stretches of DNA that target unique sequences of a DNA molecule and help identify a unique part of a genome or a gene to be copied further. They are usually 18 to 25 nucleotides long. Primers can be synthesized and used for your PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and other molecular biology experiment

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Epidemiology, control, prevention, and public health concern of biowarfare

Chemical agents and biological agents are very exceptional from other conventional warfare tools including nuclear/atomic weapons in that they are usually invisible and they produce delayed effects in victims of biologic and chemical attack. The usage of these weapons of mass destruction in formal warfare is unlikely especially now that the world is seriously yearning

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